Japanese vocabulary list: Math and number terms

By | March 2, 2017

It’s been awhile since I’ve posted a Japanese vocabulary list, so I thought I would make one about mathematics and numbers (数学用語). I’ve purposefully left shapes out of this list and may make another list later just focusing on those.

(Interesting fact: In the 2015 PISA average scores, Japan scored #5 in math and #2 in science.)

If you have any ideas for a vocabulary list, let me know.

  • 数学 (suugaku): mathematics
  • 数学的 (suugakuteki): mathematical  (used as an adjective)
  • 数字 (suuji): number
  • 数 (kazu): number
  • 桁 (keta): digit
    • 3桁 (san keta): 3 digits
  • 算数 (sansuu): elementary mathematics  [covers things like basic counting, shapes, addition, etc.]
  • 足し算 (tashizan): addition
    • 1+2=3  (ichi tasu ni wa san)
  • 引き算 (hikizan): subtraction
    • 3−2=1 (san hiku ni wa ichi)
  • 掛け算 (kakezan): multiplication
    • 2x3=6 (ni kakeru san wa roku)
  • 割り算 (warizan): division
    • 8/4=2 (hachi waru yon wa ni)
  • 小数 (shousuu): decimal
    • 3.2 (ichi ten ni)
  • 分数  (bunsuu): fraction
    • 5/3(san bun no go)
    • 分母 (bunbo): divisor  (3 in this example)
    • 分子 (bunshi): numerator (5 in this example)   [Note: also means molecule in physics]
  • 約数 (yakusuu): divisor
    • 10の約数 (juu no yakusuu): divisor of 10
  • 倍数 (baisuu): multiple
    • 5の倍数 (baisuu): multiple of 5
  • 指数 (shisuu): exponent  [also index, as in ‘customer index’]
  • 偶数 (guusuu): even number
  • 奇数 (kisuu): odd number
  • 非数 (hisuu): not a number (NAN)
  • 無理数 (murisuu): irrational number
  • 有理数 (yuurisuu): rational number
  • 比 (hi): ratio
    • 2対3 (ni tai san):  2:3  (radio of 2 to 3)
  • 量 (ryou): amount
  • 体積 (taiseki): volume
  • 面積 (menseki): area
  • 角度 (kakudo): angle
    • 90度 (kyuu juu do): 90 degrees
  • 長さ (nagasa): length
  • 重さ (omosa): weight
  • 速さ (hayasa): speed
  • 素数 (sosuu): prime number
  • 整数 (seisuu): integer / whole number
  • 実数 (jissuu): real number
  • 虚数 (kyosuu): imaginary number
  • 自然数 (shizensuu): natural number  [1,2,3,4,5…]
  • 負の数 (fu no suu): negative number  [also 負数]
  • 正の数 (sei no suu): positive number [also 正数]
  • 多い (ooi): many / more than   [10より多い  = more than 10]
  • 少ない (sukunai): few / less than  [5より少ない = less than 5]
  • 等しい (hitoshii): equal   [also イコール]
  • 円周率 (enshuuritsu): PI (3.141592…)

Here is a site in Japanese with a few more: http://www.suriken.com/knowledge/glossary/grade01_06.html

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